The Summit Sentinel
Volume 21.09
September 1997
Dedicated to the Amateur Radio Service
and Emergency Communications
Las Cumbres Amateur Radio Club, P.O. Box 2451, Cupertino, CA 95015

  What's New!

  • We've got graphs, we've got data, but do we have answers? The results are in on the Club's First (and last?) Annual Membership survey.
  • Still plagued by interference? Then you might find the story on Page 5 of particular interest.
  • The ARRL's Private Enforcement Proposal is now in motion. This effort could use your help. See the story on page 7.
  • NTS: the Final Chapter. Read Part III on the National Traffic System beginning on page 3. How will you use it?
  • Dare I mention it? Only newsletter editors and Santa Claus thinks this far ahead. Stay tuned for details on this year's Holiday Party! (ho ho ho!)

  On the Horizon

  • September 10, Board Meeting, 7:00p, American Legion Hall, Santa Clara
  • September 13, Foothill Flea Market
  • September 16, General Meeting, 7:30p, Oak Room HP Cupertino, speaker to be announced.
  • October 8, Board Meeting, 7:00p, American Legion Hall, Santa Clara
  • October 21, General Meeting, 7:30p, Oak Room HP Cupertino, speaker to be announced.
  • November 30, Breakfast Meeting, 8:00a, Just Breakfast, Lawrence and Homestead, Santa Clara

  Who are we? LCARC's First Membership Survey tries to answer that question

During the many years as a member at large, then board member, I've watched the faces, attitudes, opinions, and interests of the Club change.

I've also wondered what makes the collective membership tick? Is it Field Day (easily answered by the turn-outs we've had)? Social activities? Spacious meeting room? Technical pursuits? Saturday Breakfasts? What?

I've run a couple of surveys at work and figured it was time to run one for the club. During the last Membership Drive, a survey was included with the dues coupons and more than 50% of you took the time to fill it out and send it back... Thank you! Statistically, this is more than a sufficient sample to figure out what who we are and what we like about Ham Radio and the Club.

Now, on to the results!

Flash! VHF Repeater Club likes 2M!

When given a choice, the membership voted the 2 meter band its band of choice with a 59% vote, followed by 70cm at 13% (Graph 1). 40M was the top HF band vote-getter receiving 8%.

When asked "How do you enjoy Ham Radio", (check all that apply) over 60% of the respondents identified themselves as Casual Users followed equally by the Experimenters and Rag Chewers (30% each). See these results on Graph 2.

The Other category for the same question received 21% of the vote with the most common write-in entry being Emergency Preparedness. Kit Builders cast a 21% vote followed by DX'ers (16%) and Contesters (9%).

Not too surprisingly, when asked "Why do you enjoy LCARC Membership," (check all that apply) Repeater Privileges was at the top list with an overwhelming 92% (Graph 3). This seems to correlate with the 2 meter band preference stated earlier.

The Newsletter received the second top vote with 79%. LCARC's People and Technical Activities received a respectable 49% and 44% vote each with Club Activities (33%) and Social Activities (26%) pulling up the rear.

A slight variation of the above question was "How does LCARC membership enhance Ham Radio." See Graph 4. The Newsletter was rated as being better than moderate in enhancing Ham Radio, while the Club's General Meetings, Activities, and Field Day only weakly contributed to the Ham Radio experience.

Consistent with the nature of 2 meters and repeater use, most members do their Hamming when Mobile (50%) then at Home (43%) (Graph 5). Other places included pedestrian, bicycle, and railroad mobile, as well as in the field.

Adding License Class to the mix

The majority of the responses came from members holding Tech and Tech+ tickets at 48% (Graph 6) followed by Advanced, General, and Extras.

When license class was compared to the general frequency ranges, there was a correlation showing the higher the license class, the lower preferred frequency range (Graph 7). While the survey revealed a small percentage of Tech+ members operating in the HF region, 2 meters was by far their favorite.

CW continues to be a favorite with some of the higher class license holders, particularly among in the Extra Class. However, 18% of those stating they operate CW were Tech+.

Who likes Field Day?

While Field Days received an overall low score, Tech+ license holders were most enthusiastic about the event weighing in with 23% of the positive responses, followed by Generals and Techs at 20% each. Extras, then Advanced brought up the rear with 18% and 17% respectively.

What does this all mean?

Based on these results, here are some easy observations:

* In general, our club members are here for the repeater privileges and have a casual interest in the local goings on.

* Contesting, including Field Day, is not very popular.

* Technical aspects of the hobby, such as kit building and experimenting, are enjoyed by a limited few.

* Hams upgrade for and take advantage of the HF privileges.

Tech and Tech+ license holders new to the hobby still seem to enjoy exploring the many facets of Ham Radio as some type of rite of passage. I can relate to that since that was my path into and through the hobby.

Beyond this armchair analysis, I won't even try to interpret the many patterns of shifting interest if you overlay age, location, or careers (luckily, I don't have that data) on top of all this data.

However, one thing is clear -- Ham Radio continues to offer something for everyone. As a repeater club, we've been the host for one of the hobby's niche interests and have been successful at it -- a look at our repeater system is proof of that.

Regardless of the time we can spend on our hobby, Ham Radio undoubtedly offers each of us some personal satisfaction. Otherwise, why do we keep coming back year after year? And, in the end, isn't that satisfaction all that matters?

  Part III -- Amateur Radio's National Traffic System (NTS)
submitted by Tom KD6KMT from articles on NTS

In this part of the series: How-To's for NTS Messages

These are some guidelines for handling NTS traffic on Packet Radio. The actual message will remain in standard ARRL message-traffic format, to allow relay using methods besides PACKET. (Voice, CW, etc.)

A data-base has been established to route traffic via ZIP code. If you don't know the ZIP code for the town the message is going to, you'll have to call the Post Office.

Message Traffic is sent using the ST command so that the message may be deleted (using the K # command) at the destination without the assistance of the SYSOP.

ST Send Traffic
LT List ALL Traffic
R # Read Message number #
SR Send Reply - Let Originator know WHO tried to deliver the message.
K # Kill Message number # (ANYONE CAN)

Format for the ST command:


The ZZIPP is the 5-digit ZIP code of the destination city, and the xx is the State/Province 2-letter code used by the Post Office. Canadian ZIPs, no space.

Most BBSes will route with the @ NTSxx until the message reaches the destination state, and then send it to the proper area within that state using the ZZIPP code. The FBB systems will Mark As Forwarded messages without an '@'-field, but they won't be forwarded. There MUST BE SOMETHING in the '@'-field.

List of Valid Designators

NTSAK (Alaska),            NTSAL (Alabama),           NTSAB (Alberta),
NTSAZ (Arizona),           NTSAR (Arkansas),          NTSBC (British Columbia), 
NTSCA (California),        NTSCO (Colorado),          NTSCT (Conneticut),
NTSDE (Delaware),          NTSDC (Dist. of Columbia), NTSFL (Florida), 
NTSGA (Georgia),           NTSGU (Guam),              NTSHI (Hawaii), 
NTSID (Idaho),             NTSIL (Illinois),          NTSIN (Indiana),
NTSIA (Iowa),              NTSKS (Kansas),            NTSKY (Kentucky), 
NTSLB (Labrador),          NTSLA (Louisiana),         NTSME (Maine),
NTSMB (Manitoba),          NTSMD (Maryland),          NTSMA (Massachusetts), 
NTSMI (Michigan),          NTSMN (Minnesota),         NTSMO (Missouri), 
NTSMS (Mississippi),       NTSMT (Montana),           NTSNE (Nebraska), 
NTSNV (Nevada),            NTSNB (New Brunswick),     NTSNH (New Hampshire), 
NTSNJ (New Jersey),        NTSNM (New Mexico),        NTSNY (New York), 
NTSNF (New Foundland),     NTSNC (North Carolina),    NTSND (North Dakota), 
NTSNS (Nova Scotia),       NTSOH (Ohio),              NTSOK (Oklahoma), 
NTSON (Ontario),           NTSOR (Oregon),            NTSPA (Pennsylvania),
NTSPE (Prince Edward Isl), NTSPR (Puerto Rico),       NTSPQ (Province Quebec), 
NTSRI (Rhode Island),      NTSSK (Saskatchewan),      NTSSC (South Carolina), 
NTSSD (South Dakota),      NTSTN (Tennessee),         NTSTX (Texas),
NTSUT (Utah),              NTSVT (Vermont),           NTSVA (Virginia), 
NTSVI (Virgin Islands),    NTSWA (Washington),        NTSWV (West Virginia), 
NTSWI (Wisconsin),         NTSWY (Wyoming),           NTSYU (Yukon).
APO/FPO San Francisco, Seattle, New York, and Miami should be sent to the respective states of these post offices.

Currently, DX traffic has only 1 PACKET-ONLY outlet. Send it:

ST IATN @ NTSFL The other method is addressing it to your region NTS net (Ex: ST RN6 @ NTSCA).

Formatted 'Subject Line' of a Packet message.

Subject > (Prompt from BBS) QTC

* If there is only ONE message, leave the off. Default=1.

* If the is ROUTINE, leave it off. Otherwise, W, P, or EMERGENCY.

* Use the state 2-letter code for the part, or the province code for Canada.

* If you DON'T know then phone number, then put in a '?'. Ex: (-?-), (415)?, (207)?, etc.. You don't need the whole number listed, the prefix will tell the DELIVERING station if it is a local call for them in the 'LT' display.

* If the message isn't to a ham, then leave the off.

* Many 'Novice' packeteers don't know what 'T'-type means, hence the 'QTC' label on the subject-line.

All of this syntax is to allow BBS users to analyze a 'T' listing quickly, take what traffic they can, and then get off the BBS so someone else can either read & kill messages, send traffic, or read the Rag-Chewers bulletins again.

This was evident during the quake of '89, hopefully Ops can be trained so we won't see "ST NTSCA @ NTSCA" again!

Sample of a Message

When connected to the BBS, the following commands should be used:
BBS Prompt> (BBS saying its ready for your command)
ST 94903 @ NTSCA (Use ST, ZIP, and NTS State desigantor)
Enter title for message>
QTC W San Rafael CA (415)453- K6LRN
Enter Message and close with a CTRL-Z>

Nr 101 W N1ABC ARL 3 Brattleboro VT 1652z Oct 18 (Standard format)
To Richard Wilson K6LRN SFO SM (Addressee)
POB 4212 (Give FULL address)
San Rafael CA 94903 (Include Zip)
(415)555-1212 (INCLUDE A PHONE NUMBER!)
BT ('BT' or '=' Seperator)
ARL EIGHTEEN (802)555-1212 (Five words/line makes it
BT (easy to verify the check.)

John (Signature)
AR (End-of-Message Prosign)
CTRL-Z (Or /EX to end BBS message)
Please be sure to show ALL helpful address information. (Space or Apt Number ...)

Please DON'T PACK messages for DIFFERENT CITIES into the same BBS message. This will require MUCHO word-processing down-the-line to divide the messages for relay or delivery (watch the SYSOP rip that 100' tower section up again, and foaming at the mouth go raging off in search of careless authors!).

Knowing how to 'Relay' messages is something ALL hams should understand. The technique may be needed in an emergency (Mexico City quake, Gurneyville floods, Yosemite fires, Whittier quake, "The Great Quake of '9x", etc.).

Good luck using PACKET for QUICK message relay.

73, Karl KK1A @ K7WWA.CA NTS:NCN-Packet ZIP Coordinator.

  You know you may be a ham when...
Author unknown. Courtesy of Neal Yu KD6HPG

  • Your antenna's sparkle like the 4th of July in a lightning storm.
  • You burn your lips on a microphone because the antenna wasn't grounded.
  • Your wife wants to know why you are putting the clothes lines up so high.
  • The snow starts and someone wants to throw an antenna party!
  • You drive numerous miles out of your way as your vacation begins to Dayton, Ohio just to stop by the Repeater site to make a "ten minute" repair. Two hours later, you resume your journey after much abuse from your spouse.
  • You grab your HT instead of a newspaper when you are on your way to the bathroom.

  Miscellaneous: From the "now I know everything" department
Author unknown

Physicist Murray Gell-Mann named the sub-atomic particles known as quarks for a random line in James Joyce, "Three quarks for Muster Mark!"

  Quotable quotes
Author unknown

"Stocks have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau."
--Irving Fisher, Professor of Economics, Yale University, 1929.

  2 meter interference -- a new source?
Vic Black AB6SO

We tend to think of 2M interference as arising from distant repeaters, from those hams who "kerchunk" the repeater, from ignition noise and other sources. But it's possible to have interference from sources operating on much different frequencies. This article, written by Vic AB6SO, appeared in the May 1997 issue of "PARAgraphs", the newsletter of the Palo Alto Amateur Radio Association, Wally Porter-K6URO Editor.

Intermodulation distortion (IMD) occurs when we get unwanted products from mixer schemes when a weak signal outside of the receive frequency squeaks by a receiver band pass filter, mixes with a desired signal and is amplified. We see something akin to this when a high power paging transmitter up around 152 MHz mixes with a weaker 2-meter FM signal in a receiver IF chain.

Now Paul Bennet N7OCS, of McMinnville, Oregon has identified another potential source of 2-meter interference: third harmonics from portable telephones, baby room monitors and 49 MHz "walkie-talkies."

As Paul states it, "The 6M Citizens' Band was specifically chosen by the FCC so that any 3rd harmonic interference would fall in the amateur 2M band and not in the nearby business/public service bands." In an e-mail message, Bennet asserts that Sony portable telephones are some of the worst offenders, but he didn't mention whether he had tested any other brands or, if so, how the tests were conducted.

Apparently, some hams are receiving strong harmonics on 2-meter simplex frequencies. These may sound like malicious jamming of the ham bands, but in reality the "jammers" don't know they're causing interference. They don't identify themselves because they aren't on the radio, as far as they are concerned. Not much can be done about it, either, since both the portable telephones and 2-meter handie-talkies are FCC Type 15 devices and must accept whatever unintentional interference they receive (An interesting aside: it is illegal to listen to portable telephone conversations. If you hear this type of interference, promise not to listen to it!).

In general, portable telephones produce very weak signals. Usually they won't cause problems. What happens, though, if the third harmonic comes up on a repeater input? If the repeater doesn't require a sub-audible PL tone, we may all hear the conversation. If a particularly strong telephone signal falls on a repeater output it may create noise on the repeater channel. I made a chart (below) of portable telephone base and remote (handset) frequencies and their third harmonics in MHz to check for potential interference.

The chart highlights standard 2-meter FM frequencies which could be affected by the harmonics. Other frequencies on the chart might possibly cause intermod distortion depending on the construction and the EF frequencies used in the ham repeaters. Some telephone remotes have harmonics which fall directly on repeater input frequencies. This could become a problem for a repeater located on top of a tall, high occupancy building (such as an apartment building) where people use portable telephones.

This chart is based on standard 15 kHz wide channels for 2 meters. If the channels are either fewer in number and wider, or narrower but more numerous, then there are even more chances for interference.

Some parts of the US (Southeast and Pacific Northwest) use a 20 kHz channel spacing on 2 meters. This allows more spectrum for out of tolerance third harmonics to interfere. The new IARU Region One standard, to be phased in over several years, is for 12.5 kHz channels in order to fit more channels into a given piece of spectrum. This is being implemented immediately in the UK. This may be the way of the future in the US also. It might provide more channels for potential third harmonic interference.

Notice that this chart assumes that the consumer products are operating exactly on frequency, at specified power, with low harmonic output and with the original antenna and power supply. A channel 6 handset operating at 49.07 (i.e. 10 kHz low) might function marginally for its intended purpose but its third harmonic would then come up on the output of a 147.210 repeater. If a consumer replaces the antenna or battery on a portable telephone in order to increase range, then the effective radiated signal will be stronger. There's room for lots of combinations and permutations to create havoc. It gets even more complicated if you look at other services which can interact to cause interference. This shouldn't be forgotten by the "Little LEO" Personal Communicator Service (PCS) industry which claims to believe it can use very sensitive satellite receivers and still share the bands with other services.

Maybe this isn't all bad, though. I believe that adversity should be viewed as an opportunity. Or, as Arthur D. Little once said, "Research serves to make building-stones out of stumbling blocks." Perhaps by pulling the frequency a bit, amplifying the third harmonic, and filtering out the fundamental it might be possible to make a good FM T-hunt transmitter from a discarded portable telephone handset. Will you be the first to try it?

This article appeared in the August 1997 "ARNS Bulletin", Steve Auyer N2TKX editor.

Chan   Base  Base 3rd   Handset H'set 3rd   Affected 2-meter Frequency	
       Freq  Harmonic   Freq    Harmomic
1      43.72  131.16     48.76   146.28     148.88 (-) repeater input	
2      73.74  131.22     48.84   146.52     Simplex	
3      43.82  131.46     48.86   146.58     Simplex*	
4      43.84  131.52     48.92   146.76     146.76 (-) repeater output	
5      43.92  131.76     49.02   147.06     147.06 (+) repeater output	
6      43.96  131.88     49.08   147.24     147.24 (+) repeater output	
7      44.12  132.36     49.10   147.30     147.30 (+) repeater output	
8      44.16  132.78     49.16   147.48     Simplex	
9      44.18  132.54     49.20   147.60     147.00 (+) repeater input	
10     44.20  132.60     49.24   147.72     147.12 (+) repeater input	
11     44.32  132.96     49.28   147.84     147.24 (+) repeater input	
12     44.36  133.08     49.36   148.08     intermod source?	
13     44.40  133.20     49.40   148.20     intermod source?	
14     44.46  133.38     49.46   148.38     intermod source?	
15     44.48  133.44     49.50   148.50     intermod source?	
16     46.61  139.83     49.67   149.01     intermod source?	
17 (B) 46.63  139.89     49.845  149.535    intermod source?	
18 (C) 46.67  140.01     49.86   149.58     intermod source?	
19     46.71  140.13     49.77   149.31     intermod source?	
20 (D) 46.73  140.19     49.875  149.625    intermod source?	
21 (A) 46.77  140.31     49.83   149.49     intermod source?	
22 (E) 46.83  140.49     49.89   149.67     intermod source?	
23     46.87  140.61     49.93   149.79     intermod source?	
24     46.93  140.79     49.99   149.97     intermod source?	
25     46.97  140.91     49.97   149.91     intermod source?	
* Note: 146.58 is in the 2 meter band, but not a standard 15 kHz "channel." It could sound like a station that is slightly off frequency. Portable phone channels 1-15 were authorized June 5, 1995 and the original channels were renumbered 16-25. Low power handie-talkies and baby room monitors use the handset frequencies marked A-E.


Don't be irreplaceable -- if you can't be replaced, you can't be promoted.
-- Murphy

  Quotable quotes

"The concept is interesting and well-formed, but in order to earn better than a 'C,' the idea must be feasible."
--A Yale University management professor in response to Fred Smith's paper proposing reliable overnight delivery service (Smith went on to found Federal Express Corp.).

  Ten Commandments for the Service Technician
author unknown

I. Beware the lightning that lurketh in the undischarged capacitor, lest it smite thee and cause thee to bounce upon thy buttocks in a most un-technician like manner.

II. Cause thou the switch that supplieth large quantities of voltage to be opened and thusly tagged that thy days in this earthly vale of tears may be long.

III Prove to thyself that all circuits that radiate, and upon which they work, are grounded, and have their power reduced, lest they lift thee to radio frequency potential and cause thee to make like a radiator also.

IV. Carry thou not amongst those fools that engage in intentional shocks, for verily they are surely non-believers and are not long for this world.

V. That care that thou useth the proper method when thou takest measure of high voltage, lest thou incinerate both thyself and thy meter; for verily, though thee hath no account number and can be easily replaced, the test meter doth an account number haveth, and as consequence, bringeth much woe unto thy pocketbook and the supply room.

VI. Tamperest thou not with interlocks and safety switches for this incurreth the wrath of thy supervisor and bringeth the fullness of the might and fury of the safety inspector down upon thy head and shoulders.

VII. Workest thou not on equipment alone, for electrical cooking is a slothful process and thou might sizzleth in thy own fat for hours upon the hot circuit before thy maker sees fit to end thy misery.

VIII. Workest thou not with radioactive tubes and substances, lest thou commence to glow in the dark like the firefly, and thy wife have no further use for thee except thy wages.

IX. Causeth thou to be tagged all modifications made by thee upon equipment, lest thy successor teareth out his hair and go slowly mad in history.

X. What manner of creature hath made a nest in the wiring of such equipment is surely another creation of the Lord and shall be treated as such.

The author of this article is unknown. It was reprinted from the May 1997 issue of the "W3OK Corral", published by the Delaware-Lehigh Amateur Radio Club, Clarence Snyder-W3PYF Editor.

  FCC asks for comments on the ARRL Private Enforcement Proposal
Reported by Brad Wyatt K6WR

In what may be the start of the most significant enhancement of enforcement of Amateur Radio rules in years, the FCC announced, on Aug. 1, that the public Comments on the ARRL Petition for a Private Rules Enforcement Plan, now called RM-9150, will be accepted until Aug. 31, 1997.

The following is the W1AW bulletin that was sent when the petition was originally filed on March 28, 1997:


ARLB020 ARRL calls on FCC to privatize handling of malicious interference complaints

Citing "a substantial need to improve and increase the quantity and quality" and timeliness of enforcement in malicious interference complaints, the ARRL has called on the FCC to "create a streamlined, privatized enforcement process" to handle and adjudicate the most serious Amateur Service rules violations. In a petition for rulemaking filed March 28, the League asked that the FCC change its rules to permit members of the volunteer Amateur Auxiliary to bring evidence of malicious interference violations directly before the FCC's Chief Administrative Law Judge (ALJ). The Chief ALJ would be authorized to determine if the complainants have a valid case, to issue show-cause orders, and to designate complaints for hearing.

The League recommended that the FCC capitalize on the volunteer resources available through the Amateur Auxiliary to relieve the evidence-gathering burden in such cases. If the rules changes are approved, the League said it would likely assist members of the Amateur Auxiliary in preparing and submitting complaints and in presenting cases at administrative hearings. "The increased use of volunteer resources would seem to be entirely appropriate in the Amateur Service, which involves avocational use of radio only," the ARRL concluded.

While noting that most hams obey the rules, the League said Amateur Radio needs the Commission's help ''in a very few, persistent, serious enforcement cases'' but has not been getting it in recent years because of the FCC's staff and budgetary limitations.

"Indeed, notwithstanding the best efforts of the Commission over the past several years, there has been no resolution of the four or five most serious cases brought to the Commission's attention," the League said in its petition. Even in some of the cases the FCC did act upon, the League said the Commission did not go far enough to make the problems go away permanently. The League cited a case in New Orleans where fines against several amateurs were reduced but remain unpaid and uncollected. "There is a widespread, and growing, perception that administrative forfeitures are not collectable," the ARRL said, pointing to the complex, time-consuming method of collecting fines that is required by federal law.

The ARRL noted that while the FCC suspended one ham's license in that city in 1996, it failed to look into malicious interference charges against at least two other hams in that area. The League said examples like these send a message that the FCC won't enforce Amateur Service rules in malicious interference cases. ''Malicious interference problems, if left unchecked, tend to spread and increase in intensity," the League said. The ARRL suggested that a series of ''visible, successful enforcement actions" would deter rules violations and promote self-regulation.

The ARRL also suggested that some FCC policies get in the way of timely, effective enforcement. Current Wireless Telecommunications Bureau policy requires the Commission to independently corroborate evidence gathered by Amateur Radio volunteers. "The policy often acts as an absolute obstacle to any enforcement activity whatsoever," and it demoralizes volunteers who view their efforts as wasted.

While noting that malicious interference cases often attract a lot of attention within the amateur community, the League said ham radio can be "justifiably proud" of its history of voluntary rule compliance. "The overall level of compliant behavior among amateurs has not deteriorated over the years," the League emphasized, citing fewer than 10 active malicious interference cases in the US at present.


Please comment in a positive fashion to help encourage FCC to issue a Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) on this matter.

NOTE: Based on extensive investigation, the FCC has apparently made NO provision to receive e-mail messages on RM-9150, so all Comments MUST be in hard copy format. Please send an original and four copies of your Comments to the FCC.

It's always best to write using your own thoughts, expressed using your own words. However, as a guide, here's a sample letter:

Secretary, Federal Communications Commission
1919 M St. NW,
Washington DC 20554.
RE: RM-9150

I support the ARRL Petition to have the FCC change its rules to permit members of the volunteer Amateur Auxiliary to bring evidence of malicious interference violations directly before the FCC's Chief Administrative Law Judge. The Chief ALJ would be authorized to determine if the complainants have a valid case, to issue show-cause orders, and to designate complaints for hearing.

Please issue a Notice of Proposed Rule Making on this matter.

Signed (your name, call, address)

For those of you with WWW access there is additional information available on line: The Aug. 11 Special Edition of the Pacific Division Update is on the Pacific Division WWW site at /, while the full text of the original petition can be found on the Pacific Division WWW site at /

These entries were developed by the superb efforts of Paul Wesling KM6LH, Pacific Division Webmaster, and Glen Lokke, Jr., KE6NBO, who converted the hard copy material into machine readable. Many thanks, Paul and Glen!

See also ARRL Letter of Aug. 15, 1997.

One last item -- the deadline for submitting Reply Comments, to reply to the original Comments, is Sept. 15, 1997.

  Moon-based amateur radio? A short discussion thread

Speaking of space, the following was the summary of a variety of thoughts forwarded to me by John KJ6ZL off of the AMSAT BBS from a few years ago. Why stop at the moon? What about the next Pathfinder?!? Thanks John for passing it in!

From: Joe
Subject: Moon-based ham radio?

"I think it would be a great idea to put a 70cm to 2G transponder on this payload.

"Although, you may need some logic to keep it off during the time the moon is in the shadow - i don't think it would be too hard to have a sensor controlling the on/off of the transponder.

"Anybody want to get SERIOUS about this project ?"

From: Lisa

"I'm new on the AMSATBB, so if this has been hashed out already, please excuse me."

From: Andy

"There is a group based in California that is working on a system with Russian companies that they intend to field for the delivery of payloads to the lunar surface. They are supposed to be willing to deliver any sort of payload.... for the right price ($50K or so/lbs).

"At one time, I remember reading about a plan to place a small ham package on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. This didn't happen, as the funding for the mission that was to do it was chopped. Now, if there is still any interest in getting a payload (digipeater, remote controlled camera, etc.) onto the lunar surface, we now have the chance to do it.

"The ride ain't cheap, but then again, if we were allowed access to the lander's power supply and to mount the antenna(s) on the same aiming platform that the lander would use for communications, all we'd have to build (and pay freight on) would be the actual electronics to do whatever we wanted. That should cut the weight we'd be paying for down considerably, so, has anyone thought of approaching these folks?

"Thanks much and back to the regularly scheduled programming..."

From: Harold

"[...] Using the moon as a communications transponder would seem to be a less than optimum use. You don't get any additional coverage to make up for the additional freespace loss by being further away. We need to find something to do that:

1) makes being on the moon an advantage rather than a disadvantage
2) is something amateurs can do that others can't.

"For #1, the only advantage I can see to being on the moon (the near side, anyway), is that you can measure the "near moon" environment, at least in the local area. This is interesting, though has little to do with ham radio. As little, in fact, as ATV weather cameras, but people enjoy those.

"As an aside, there are a lot of worthwhile things to be garnered from a project like this, not the least of which is the technical education you'd get by being a part of it, advancement of commercial space activities, grass roots access to space, and all that. I'm trying to find an additional amateur radio hook here, otherwise we can all get involved as part of the Planetary Society, Students for Space, or whatever.

"For #2, what we hams offer is two-fold. First, a large base of technical people willing to work for free. Other groups have this, but we have it in abundance, with many projects under our belt. The other is that we send out data in the clear, accessible to anyone, with no PI embargo. If you want our raw science, there it is. So we can offer lunar science, direct to the public.

"The only problem is, giving the likely power levels and antenna size available on the moon, what percentage of the public is likely to hear the downlink directly? It won't be the same as listening to DOVE through a scanner.

"It sounds cool, and like something I'd look at getting involved in, but even a small package, say 1/2 a microsat, would cost 11*50k=$550,000, just in the freight costs. It needs to be more than just cool."

  Communication by Cellophane?

I don't think so. And neither did Skip AA6WK, who caught last month's typo in the opening sentence of his article titled The Cellular Ham. If you haven't figured it out yet, Skip was referring to a Cellphone! Thanks for the catch, Skip. Ahhh, the joys of spell checkers that don't understand context!

  Missed (the) Mark!

My apologies to Mark KE6QCT for omitting his name among the gallant few who braved dirt, spiders, mice, and other mountain-top nasties while helping with last month's shack clean-up.

  Highlights from the ARRL Pacific Division Update -- September 1997
Brad Wyatt K6WR

Pacific Division, ARRL
(408) 395-2501 (Phone and FAX)
Packet: K6WR@N0ARY.#NCA.CA
WWW Pacific Division Home Page --

Federal Legal Protection for Volunteers

The Volunteer Protection Act of 1997, Public Law 105-19, should provide Federal protection from "frivolous, arbitrary, or capricious" lawsuits against our OO/AmAux and VE volunteers as well as other volunteers. The law becomes effective on Sept. 16, 1997. The text is available on the WWW at . Search for PL 105-19.

See p. 15, August 1997 QST for more information. This law may become a very strong companion to RM-9150 in a major turnaround in Amateur Rule enforcement.

Gate 3 of the Vanity Call Program Opened Aug. 6, 1997

Gate 3 opened for Advanced Class licensees on Aug. 6, 1997. Details on the Vanity Call program can be found on the ARRL WWW site at or by calling the FCC National Call Center at 1-888-CALL-FCC. To file, use Form 610-V available via the FCC Internet Homepage at html or from ARRL HQ. The fee remains $30 for a 10 year license until Sept. 16, 1997.

The date for opening Gate 4 has not yet been announced. The new fee of $50 for the 10 year license will take effect Sept. 16, 1997.

Latest Band Threat News

The best news this month is that Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, ARRL Technical Relations Manager, has been named as an official member of the U. S. delegation to WRC 97 in Geneva this November.

There apparently has been no specific new band threat news this month on the Little LEO matter. This situation may remain this way until WRC 97 opens in Geneva in November. However, other country's delegations may yet propose the "broad allocation" scheme as the Little LEO companies have been active all over the world selling this idea. See also p. 9, August 1997 QST.

So WHAT do we do now?

1. Continue to monitor the progress of this unfolding drama! For the latest news on this volatile issue, read QST, Pacific Division Updates in hard copy. Read ARRL Letter, Pacific Division Updates on e-mail; visit Pacific Division WWW site. Visit the ARRL home page at and select "Band Threat News."

2. Join ARRL! The ARRL is the only effective national organization fighting for YOUR 2 meter, 1.25 meter and 70 cm operating privileges. It is easy to join and help us win this battle to preserve our privileges. Think positive thoughts!

3. Contribute to the Fund for the Defense of Amateur Radio Frequencies! (See page 76 of October 1996 QST for all the details.)

We won't be able to breathe easily about WRC-97 issues until the final gavel comes down on Nov. 21, 1997.

For more information on spectrum matters involving the U. S. budget and other spectrum issues, see pages 15, 16, and 74, August 1997 QST.

KN6FR, Named Herb S. Brier Instructor of the Year

The ARRL Board at its July meeting named Eric J. Lagerstrom, KN6FR, of Seaside, California, as the recipient of the Herb S. Brier Instructor of the Year Award for 1996. Congratulations, Rick!

Sara Hanna, KE6MWX, Winner in the 46th Annual Calif. Science Fair

Congratulations, Sara! Her project, "Does the design of the driven element affect the radiation pattern of a Yagi antenna," placed first in the Junior Division of Electricity and Electronics. Thanks to the Willits ARC newsletter.

Landon Quan, KE6UAS, Wins QCWA Scholarship

Landon Quan of San Rafael, CA, was named by The Foundation for Amateur Radio, Inc., as one of the winners of the QCWA Memorial Scholarships -- specifically, the QCWA Robert Cresap (W9LRI) Memorial Scholarship. Thanks to FAR, Inc. news release

Dennis Motschenbacher, K7BV, is New National Contest Journal Editor

Dennis Motschenbacher, K7BV, of Carson City, Nevada, will be the new editor of the National Contest Journal (NCJ), starting with the November/December issue. "It's an awesome honor," Motschenbacher said when he learned he'd gotten the job. "I'm very excited." Congratulations, Dennis! -- ARRL Letter.

  Las Cumbres Amateur Radio Club (LCARC)

LCARC is a California non-profit mutual benefit corporation dedicated to Amateur Radio Service and Emergency Communication. It's purpose is to support scientific investigation in radio engineering and emergency communication skills development for its members.

Repeaters and Services operated by LCARC
K6FB/R: 145.450 MHz, (-), PL=100, linked with
K6FB/R: 442.575 MHz (+), PL=100
K6FB/R: 223.880 MHz (-), PL=100
K6FB-1 Digipeater: 145.050 MHz
K6FB-2 Bulletin Board: 145.050 MHz
K6FB-7 Node: 145.050 MHz

Nets and Meetings
The LCARC Net is held every Monday evening at 7:30pm on the K6FB/R repeaters. Guests and visitors are welcome to check in. Volunteers for net control for the following week's net are solicited (and encouraged) at the end of each net.

General meetings are held at the Hewlett-Packard Cupertino Site, Oak Room, Building 48, located at Wolfe Road and Pruneridge Avenue (entrance on Pruneridge) at 7:30 PM, on the third Tuesday of every month unless otherwise noted (see page 1 for location, dates). Talk-in on K6FB/R.

Officers and Board of Directors

Jey Yelland / KQ6DK . . . . . . President
Ken Carey / KN6CK   . . . . . . Vice President
Harry Workman / K6JTC . . . . . Treasurer
Ned Rice / KE6ZOZ . . . . . . . Membership
Jim Oberhofer / KN6PE . . . . . Secretary
Frank Butcher / W6SZS . . . . . TCC
Tom Campbell / KD6KMT . . . . . Trustee
Dick LaTondre / KB6GLX  . . . . Member at Large
Summit Sentinel
The Summit Sentinel is published monthly by the LCARC. Permission is granted to reprint from this publication with appropriate source credit. The deadline for submitting items is the second Friday following each general meeting. Send your contributions to Jim KN6PE at:

packet: KN6PE@N0ARY or leave on K6FB-2
fax: 408-447-0527; phone: 408-447-0837